Arrow of Time, Doppler Effect, Entropy, Euclidean Dimensions, Spatial-Time Dimension, Speed of Light, Time Dilation, Vacuum Energy

**Nailing Theses to the Academia Door**

On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther (1483-1546) nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of All Saints’ Church, in modern day Lutherstadt Wittenburg, Germany. The Church is commonly known as Schloßkirche, or Castle Church. Martin Luther was a professor of Theology at the University of Wittenburg. His purpose for posting his Ninety-Five Theses was to spark a scholarly debate against the practice of selling indulgences by the Church.

Like Martin Luther, my intent is to begin a scholarly debate over issues supported by the scientific community that seem to defy human logic. The Big Bang theory, Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, and the Standard Model of Particle Physics are the most recent theories of our universe. However, to develop a consistent model, current day cosmologists have come up with some hard to believe concepts.

The following is a list of issues that challenge the scientific communities understanding of our universe. The Theory of Time’s (ToT) approach to these same issues is also presented.

**Thesis #1 – The speed of light is non-constant**

Einstein assumed all light in the vacuum of space travels at a constant speed, *c*. This speed is independent of the source of the light.

The ToT assumes the initial speed of light is *c* relative to its source. Also, since photons have a mass-equivalency, the speed of photons is subject to gravitational forces which can bend the path of the photons as well as increase and decrease the speed of the photons.

**Thesis #2 – Time dilation only exists in clocks **

Time dilation is directly caused by Einstein’s assumption of a constant speed of light and only three spatial dimensions.

ToT recognizes that time dilation exists in clocks because the oscillators are tuned to oscillate at a constant speed – thus satisfying Einstein’s assumption of invariant speed. However, time dilation does not exist in nature because the speed of light is non-constant and there are four spatial dimensions. All experiments that supposedly demonstrate time dilation in nature are the result of relativistic momentum being interpreted as relativistic mass times the velocity of the mass.

**Thesis #3 – The temporal time dimension is linear**

Einstein used the Lorentz Factor, *γ*, in his calculations to represent time dilation. In spacetime, Einstein assumed the temporal time dimension was a Lorentzian manifold.

The ToT assumes the temporal time dimension is linear moving at a constant rate.

**Thesis #4 – Anything can travel faster than ***c*

*c*

According to Einstein, the Lorentz Factor, *γ*, becomes undefined as the velocity of an object approaches *c*. This prevents objects from travelling faster than *c*.

The ToT does not recognize the Lorentz Factor in the physical laws of the universe. With no Lorentz Factor in nature, *c* is not a limiting speed.

**Thesis #5 – There is no such thing as relativistic mass since momentum is always mass times velocity**

Einstein’s assumed that relativistic momentum was defined by *ρ=(m**·γ)v* where *m**·γ* is relativistic mass. He believed the formula could not be *ρ=m(**γ·v)* as *γ·v* can yield velocities greater than *c*.

Since objects can travel faster than *c* in ToT, momentum is defined as *ρ=m(**γ·v)* where the mass of the object is constant, and *γ·v* represents the velocity of the object even if that velocity is greater than *c*.

**Thesis #6 – Spatial dimensions are Euclidean**

Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity uses non-Euclidean spatial dimensions to posit his belief that gravity is nothing more than the inertia of objects moving along the shortest path (i.e. geodesic) through curved space. Space becomes curved by objects of mass moving through it.

Both NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and the European Space Agency’s Planck space probe have provided scientific evidence that spatial dimensions in outer space are Euclidean.

**Thesis #7 – There exists a fourth Spatial-Time Dimension in the Multiverse**

Current scientific thought assumes spacetime consists of three spatial dimensions and the one temporal dimension of time. Under this model, the Multiverse is only four-dimensional.

If our universe consists of only three Euclidean spatial dimensions, then the location of the Big Bang must exist at some point within those three dimensions. However, the Hubble Space Telescope, through its deep field studies, has shown that the Big Bang is at the farthest distance in all directions. This can only happen if our universe has moved away from the point of the Big Bang within the Multiverse. This movement indicates there exists a fourth spatial dimension through which our universe is moving over time. This dimension is called the Spatial-Time Dimension

**Thesis #8 – Einstein’s Mass-Energy Equivalence formula is an acceleration formula**

Einstein’s Mass-Energy Equivalence formula is* E=mc ^{2}*. This formula is mostly used to illustrate how a small amount of uranium, or plutonium, in a nuclear bomb can create a huge release of energy. The formula also is used to show how much energy it takes to create mass at the time of the Big Bang. Science offers no explanation as to why c is in the formula.

In mathematics, *E=mc ^{2}* is an acceleration formula where it takes energy

*E*to accelerated an object of mass

*m*to speed

*c*. The ToT posits that, when matter was created at the time of the Big Bang, the matter was accelerated to speed

*c*along the spatial-time dimension.

**Thesis #9 – The constant ***c* is a universal constant representing the speed of matter in the Spatial-Time Dimension

*c*is a universal constant representing the speed of matter in the Spatial-Time Dimension

According to Einstein’s assumption, the universal constant, c, represents the constant speed of light in a vacuum.

In ToT, light is initially accelerated to speed *c* in temporal time. The ToT uses *c _{L}* to represent this use of the constant

*c*.

*c*is not conceptually the same

_{L}*c*as the one in

*E=mc*. However, the universal constant in ToT is

^{2}*c*which represents the speed of the universe in the Spatial-Time Dimension. Once the universe is set in motion at speed

_{T}*c*at the point of the Big Bang, it stays in motion at that speed because there are no outside forces acting upon it.

_{T}*c*is conceptually the same

_{T}*c*as the one in

*E=mc*.

^{2}**Thesis #10 – The Lorentz Factor, ***γ*, is the conversion factor between *c*_{L} and *c*_{T}

*γ*, is the conversion factor between

*c*and

_{L}*c*

_{T}Einstein used the Lorentz Factor, *γ*, to represent time dilation in his Theory of Relativity.

In the ToT, the Lorentz Factor, *γ*, is the conversion factor between *c _{L}* and

*c*. The “Fundamental Law of the Constant

_{T}*c*” states that

*c*

_{T}= c_{L }*· γ*.

**Thesis #11 – There exists two dimensions of time – one with speed zero and one with speed ***c*_{T}

*c*

_{T}Current scientific thought only accepts one dimension of time. That dimension is the temporal time dimension with the speed of zero.

In addition to the temporal time dimension with speed zero, the ToT also recognizes the spatial-time dimension which has a speed of *c _{T}*.

**Thesis #12 – Experiments that measure ***c*_{L} are measuring *c*_{T}

*c*are measuring

_{L}*c*

_{T}The classic experiment to measure the speed of light is to emit photons from a light source, bounce them off a distant mirror (e.g. on the Moon), and then measure the time it takes for the photon to return to a light detector. Knowing the distance photons travel in three-dimensional space and the time it takes to cover that distance, the value of *c _{L}* can be calculated. In other words, this experiment is normally used to calculate the speed of light.

The ToT states that everything in our universe, including the light source, mirror, and light detector, and even the photons, are moving through the spatial-time dimension at the speed *c _{T}*. The experiments mentioned above are using light to measure the speed of spatial-time. The value of

*c*is determined by how far the universe has moved in time between when the light was emitted and when it was detected.

_{T}**Thesis #13 – The speed of light is dependent on the relative velocity of the light source**

According to Einstein, all light travels in a vacuum at the constant speed *c* independent of the speed of the light source. This means light has this same speed *c* in both an At Rest Inertial Frames of Reference as well as Moving Inertial Frames of Reference.

In the ToT, the initial velocity of light is *c _{L}+v_{L}* where

*v*is the relative speed of the light source. Note that

_{L}*v*only in Moving Inertial Frames of Reference.

_{L}>0**Thesis #14 – The wave equation is only valid when a photon is initially emitted within the At Rest Inertial Frame of Reference**

Under Einstein’s Principle of Invariant Light Speed, the wave equation (i.e*. f **· λ = c*) is true always and in all Inertial Frames of Reference.

Under ToT, the speed of light is non-constant. In an At Rest Inertial Frame of Reference, the speed of light is only *c* when it is initially emitted by a light source. It is only at this point the wave equation is valid. After emission, the speed of light changes due to gravitational forces acting upon it. In Moving Inertial Frames of Reference, the initial speed of light is relative to the light source and will not necessarily be *c* at any time.

**Thesis #15 – Entropy is higher degrees-of-freedom governed by temperature**

There is a contradiction between thermodynamics and cosmology over the concept of entropy. Classical physics argues that entropy is determined by the degrees-of-freedom a system possesses. Systems with a greater number of degrees-of-freedom are said to be in a higher state of entropy than a system with fewer degrees-of-freedom. When applied to thermodynamics, we see that atoms in a solid state have fewer degrees of freedom than atoms in a gaseous state. As a result, we conclude that cold objects are in a lower state of entropy and hot objects are in a higher state of entropy. However, in cosmology, the very hot particles during the Big Bang are considered in a lower entropy state, and the particles at the end of the universe are in a higher entropy state as their temperature approaches zero degrees Kelvin (i.e. 0 K).

The ToT eliminates this apparent contradiction by making temperature a property of entropy. Temperature governs how many degrees-of-freedom systems can have. According to this definition, a system is in a higher state of entropy when it is exercising the most degrees-of-freedom allowed for a given temperature. The system is in a lower state of entropy when it is exercising fewer of the degrees of freedom allowed at that temperature. If degrees-of-freedom remain the same, then the lowering of the temperature represents moving from a lower state of entropy to a higher state of entropy due to the less ability to perform useful work.

**Thesis #16 – Our universe follows an Inverse Cube Law based on entropy**

Classical physics states the luminosity of light diminishes according to an Inverse Square Law. As light travels outward from its source, its luminosity diminishes with the square of its distance from the light source. According to the Inverse Power Law, our universe experiences an Inverse Square Law because it consists of three spatial dimensions.

According to ToT, our Multiverse consists of four spatial dimensions. Because of the Inverse Power Law, we follow an Inverse Cube Law. This Inverse Cube Law is based on entropy. The decrease in the luminosity of light in three dimensions is analogous to the spontaneous dispersion of cream poured into a cup of coffee. However, light also experiences a spontaneous loss of temperature over time just as a hot cup of coffee cools over time. Both the spontaneous dispersion of the cream and the spontaneous loss of temperature are due to entropy. Photons lose temperature as they move through the fourth spatial-time dimension.

**Thesis #17 – The frequency, ***f*, of a photon decreases over time due to entropy

*f*, of a photon decreases over time due to entropy

According to Einstein, gravity can increase the frequency of a photon as it moves toward the gravity source. Similarly, a photon loses frequency as it moves away from the gravity source. According to Christian Doppler, the movement of a star towards Earth will increase the frequency of a photon due to the Doppler Effect. Similarly, the movement of a star away from Earth will decrease the frequency of a photon.

Under ToT, the frequency of a photon represents the amount of useful work the photon can perform. Because of entropy, the photon will spontaneously lose its ability to perform useful work (i.e. lose frequency) over time. A photon cannot spontaneously increase its ability to perform useful work (i.e. gain frequency). Note this definition of frequency varies slightly from particle physics which contends the frequency represents the amount of energy the photon possesses. The total energy of the photon is the mass equivalency of the photon accelerated to speed *c*.

**Thesis #18 – The wavelength, ***λ*, of a photon changes as the speed of the photon changes

*λ*, of a photon changes as the speed of the photon changes

Current physics contends the wavelength of a photon varies inversely with the frequency of the photon according to the wave equation (i.e*. f **· λ = c*).

Both ToT and particle physics contend wavelength represents the momentum of a photon. Because the speed of light is non-constant under ToT, the faster a photon moves, the greater will be its wavelength. The slower a photon moves, the smaller will be its wavelength. After its emission, a photon can be accelerated or decelerated by gravitational forces. The frequency does not change, except for the loss of frequency over time due to entropy.

**Thesis #19 – The Doppler Effect for Light does not function like the Doppler Effect for Sound**

Under current scientific thought, the Doppler Effect functions the same for both sound and light. However, while physicists can easily explain the Doppler Effect for Sound, they cannot easily explain how it works for light. Generally, a physicist will only explain the Doppler Effect for Sound and then just say the same thing applies to light. Einstein’s assumption of the Principle of Invariant Light Speed attempts to equate the two forms of the Doppler Effect by substituting the constant *c* for the medium required by the Doppler Effect. In the current theory, it is best to think of the observer as existing in the At Rest Inertial Frame of Reference.

Under the ToT, the Doppler Effect for Light functions significantly different from the Doppler Effect for Sound. For sound, sound waves are compressed by the motion of the sender through the medium. The frequency heard by the receiver is also affected by the motion of the receiver. For light, there is no medium. As a result, the movement of a star causes no compression of the light waves. All frequency changes are the direct result of the receiver’s motion through the light waves. In this s8ituation, it is best to think of the star as the At Rest Inertial Frame of Reference.

**Thesis #20 – The Doppler Effect for Light causes no observable redshift**

Christian Doppler believed that redshift was due to the Doppler Effect because scientists believed the universe was filled with aether which acted as the medium for light. When the Michelson-Morley Experiments showed there was no aether, Einstein substitutes the constant speed of light for the aether. Under Einstein’s substitution, redshift is still caused by the Doppler Effect.

With the non-constant speed of light in the ToT, there is a change in frequency and wavelength as light waves enter an observer’s Inertial Frame of Reference. However, this process is reversed as the observer passes through the light waves. The result is no observed redshift.

**Thesis #21 – Hubble’s Law is not interpreted correctly**

Hubble’s Law is based on the idea that all redshift is the result of the Doppler Effect for light. When plotting the recessional velocity due to redshift against the distance of the spatial object based on standard candles, Edwin Hubble observed a strong correlation between recessional redshift and distance. This led to the idea that the farther away an object exists, the faster it is moving away.

Under the ToT, Hubble’s correlation diagram is based on two separate phenomena. The correlation line is based on the photons loss of usable energy due to entropy over time. This phenomenon is called Entropic Redshift. Observed redshift above and below the correlation line is due to changes in the velocity of the photon due to gravitational forces the photon encounters over time. This phenomenon is called Non-Entropic Redshift.

**Thesis #22 – Entropic Redshift only increases red-shifting over time**

Current science has no concept of Entropic Redshift.

In the ToT, Entropic Redshift is caused by the loss of usable energy in a photon over time due to entropy. Since entropy only increases over time, Entropic Redshift only moves toward greater levels of red-shift the father out into space an object exists.

**Thesis #23 – Non-Entropic Redshift can be either red-shifted or blue-shifted**

Current Science has no concept of Non-Entropic Redshift.

In the ToT, Non-Entropic Redshift is caused by photons speeding up and slowing down as they encounter gravitational forces over time. When a photon is accelerated, it becomes blue-shifted. When a photon decelerates, it becomes red-shifted.

**Thesis #24 – The CMB is an example of Entropic Redshift over time**

The current temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is just a few degrees above absolute zero. Since the CMB started out as something very hot, cosmologists argue that the CMB lost its energy as the result of New Space being created in our expanding universe. This continual creation of New Space stretches the wavelength of the photons over this new space. The creation of New Space appears to only occur in the space between galaxies as there is no observed evidence of this phenomenon within galaxies. This disparity regarding where New Space is created brings into question the validity of the theory.

In the ToT, there is no such thing as the creation of New Space. The decrease in the temperature of the CMB is due directly to the loss of usable energy in the photons of the CMB because of entropy.

**Thesis #25 – Dark Matter does not exist**

The concept of Dark Matter began when astronomers observed a discrepancy in the orbits of stars around the central mass of a distant galaxy. The orbital velocities were determined based on the belief that redshift measured recessional velocities.

Under the ToT, redshift cannot be used to measure the speed of a celestial object toward or away from the observer. As a result, the redshift of the stars in the disk of distant galaxies are flat lined due to this fact that redshift does not measure velocity. Since the redshift analysis is showing no change in these stars, this is the expected result and there is no need to invent the concept of Dark Matter.

**Thesis #26 – The Spatial-Time Dimension had a beginning**

Traditionally, scientists believed only the temporal time dimension existed. There was no viable explanation as to how temporal time had a beginning. This leads to the paradox of how we ever got to the present if there was an infinite past.

The Spatial-Time Dimension had a beginning at the point of reheating during the Big Bang. Reheating is when the fermions were first created and accelerated to the speed c along the Spatial-Time Dimension. Even though temporal time technically existed prior to this event, the point of reheating can also be considered the beginning of temporal time.

**Thesis #27 – An Arrow of Time is based on movement along the Spatial-Time Dimension**

According to current scientific thought, the Arrow of Time is determined by entropy. The universe changes as it moves from states of low entropy to states of high entropy.

In the ToT, the Arrow of Time is the direction the universe is moving at speed *c _{T}* along the Spatial-Time Dimension. Entropy still causes things to change within a universe, but it does not define the Arrow of Time. Each universe has its own unique Arrow of Time in which it moves.

**Thesis #28 – All universes are born as twins**

In our current view of the Big Bang, only our universe was created. Somehow, through a process called Baryogenesis, it came about that there was more matter than antimatter. The excess matter annihilated most of the antimatter leaving us with a universe consisting mostly of matter.

According to the ToT, two universes were created at the point of reheating. One universe, like ours, follows one Arrow of Time. The second universe follows an opposite Arrow of Time. Since both universes are moving at speed cT in opposite directions, they become unknown to each other. According to CPT symmetry, one universe became dominated by matter, while the second universe became dominated by antimatter.

**Thesis #29 –Time-reversal means following the opposite Arrow of Time**

Current science has a poor understanding of what time-reversal means. We know that time is one of the three symmetries of particle physics – along with charge and parity. Most scientists think that time-reversal means you should be able to detect a particle before it is generated.

In the ToT, time-reversal just means the particle is following the opposite Arrow of Time. There is no time-travel paradox where one has the potential to go back in time to either observe or change history. Past, present, and future do not coexist at the same time. Rather, the present is the dividing line between what has happened in the past and what has yet to happen in the future just as our logic dictates.

**Thesis #30 – There is no Baryogenesis **

Baryogenesis is a theory to explain why our universe consists mainly of matter with very little antimatter. According to particle physics, equal parts of matter and antimatter were generated. Current science has no explanation as to why our universe is mainly composed of matter.

The ToT holds that twin universes are always created. One universe (i.e. ours) consists mainly of matter while our twin universe consists mainly of antimatter. The two universes are travelling in opposite directions along their respective Arrows of Time due to time symmetry. The matter and anti-matter universes were created due to unequal distribution of charge symmetry with respect to the time symmetry.

**Thesis #31 – Particles are waveforms travelling at speed ***c*_{T}

*c*

_{T}Einstein’s theories deal with particles. Quantum theory deals with waveforms. The two theories do not agree with each other at points earlier that the point of reheating during the Big Bang.

The ToT defines particles as waveforms travelling only at speed *c _{T}* along the Spatial-Time Dimension. Prior to reheating during the Big Bang, Spatial-Time dimensions did not exist. This explains why Einstein’s formulas do not work prior to reheating. However, waveforms can still exist outside of any Spatial-Time Dimension. As a result, Quantum Theory can define what happens prior to the point of reheating in the early moments of the Big Bang.

**Thesis #32 – Vacuum energy is not passive**

Current science understands very little about vacuum energy. We know it exists as the energy contained in empty space. Its main effect on our universe appears to be in causing it to continue to accelerate outward until we become isolated galaxies in space. We are aware of quantum fluctuations (also called virtual particles) where particles appear and disappear within one Planck unit of time. There appears to be no way we can harvest the vacuum energy of our universe.

In the ToT, vacuum energy plays a much more dynamic role in the Multiverse. As our universe moves along the Spatial-Time dimension, it interacts with vacuum energy to create bosons in the Multiverse. What we see as virtual particles that disappear within one Planck unit of time are really waveforms that continue to exist in the Multiverse in the wake of the universe’s passage. The conversion of vacuum energy into bosons reduces the vacuum energy in the local area of four-dimension space. As a result, vacuum energy begins to flow like winds between high and low-pressure weather systems.

**Thesis #33 – Vacuum energy is the mechanism of gravity**

According to Newton, gravity is a force, which operates at a distance, to pull together objects of mass. According to Einstein, gravity is not a force at all. Rather it is a curvature of spacetime where matter causes spacetime to curve, and the curvature causes matter to move along a geodesic (the geometric equivalent of a straight line in space). Einstein believed that the mechanism of gravity is time dilation.

In the ToT, the mechanism of gravity is the movement of vacuum energy from areas of higher energy to areas of lower energy. As vacuum energy interacts with the matter of our universe, bosons are left in the wake of our universe’s passage through the Spatial-Time Dimension. This trail of bosons in the Multiverse causes an energy deficit to exist within the massive objects inside our universe. Areas of higher vacuum energy rush in to equalize the energy levels. This movement of vacuum energy causes a pressure differential that gently pushes massive objects toward each other.

**Thesis #34 – Black Holes are hurricanes in space**

Our current view of Black Holes is that they are a singularity in space with infinite gravity. Around the Black Hole is an event horizon. All objects, including light, cannot escape being crushed by the singularity once it crosses the event horizon. The accretion disk is matter and energy spiraling toward the event horizon. Under current scientific thought, the singularity can hold an infinite amount of mass. However, our intuition tells us that a singularity is not possible.

In the ToT, Black Holes are the recycling mechanism of the universe where particles of matter and energy are crushed back into vacuum energy. Rather than a singularity and an event horizon, Black Holes function more like hurricanes on Earth. The inside of the Black Hole is a calm area of lower vacuum energy like the eye of a hurricane. It is at the wall of the black hole (i.e. the event horizon) where all the action occurs. The onrush of vacuum energy at the wall is so great that it crushes the particles of matter out of existence.

**Thesis #35 – Our movement through the Spatial-Time Dimension causes the birth of additional twin universes**

According to the Big Bang Theory, our universe was somehow created from a singularity. The initial universe was very small and very hot. The fundamental forces of nature first differentiated out as the universe began to cool. Eventually the universe cooled enough for fermions to be formed at the point of reheating.

The ToT portrays a different story about the Big Bang. As our universe moves through the Spatial-Time Dimension, it leaves a wake of bosons in temporal time. These bosons eventually give rise to future universes. The free bosons start coming together through some unknown process and begin to heat up. When sufficient numbers of bosons gain enough energy, a new reheating process starts giving birth to a new pair of universes.

**Thesis #36 – Our universe has three realities**

Prior to the 19^{th} century, scientists only recognized the reality of the physical universe with its deterministic cause and effect relationship. Beginning in the late 19^{th} century, scientists began to discover the subatomic world and its probabilistic relationships. Scientists believed, although they could not explain how, that the human mind was either deterministic or probabilistic in nature.

In the ToT, the human mind is neither deterministic, nor probabilistic. The human mind can create things (e.g. symphonies) from nothing. The history of scientific thought is one of the human mind observing the universe and creating theories about what governs the universe. The human mind represents a third reality of our universe.

**Thesis #37 – Physics is not that complicated**

Newtonian physics is much easier to teach to students than modern physics. If presented properly to a student, Newtonian physics makes sense intuitively to us. Therefore, we still teach Newtonian physics in our beginning physics classes in school. Modern physics, however, is filled with strangeness (e.g. time dilation, singularities, folding of spacetime, parallel universes) that causes us to question our intuition and logic.

The ToT brings us back to a physics that makes sense intuitively. The history of scientific thought shows us that, when scientific research starts causing us to question our intuition (e.g. the Ptolemy theory that planets making looping orbits around the Earth), someone will come up with a new theory (e.g. the Copernicus theory that planets orbit around the Sun) that makes more intuitive and logical sense to us.